By Miriam Hoexter, S. N. Eisenstadt, Nehemia Levtzion

ISBN-10: 0585476101

ISBN-13: 9780585476100

ISBN-10: 0791453677

ISBN-13: 9780791453674

ISBN-10: 0791453685

ISBN-13: 9780791453681

Not easy traditional assumptions, the participants to this interdisciplinary quantity argue that premodern Muslim societies had various and altering forms of public spheres, built in response to premises diversified from these of Western societies. the general public sphere, conceptualized as a separate and self reliant sphere among the authentic and personal, is used to shed new gentle on known issues in Islamic heritage, comparable to the function of the shari`a (Islamic spiritual law), the `ulama’ (Islamic scholars), colleges of legislations, Sufi brotherhoods, the Islamic endowment establishment, and the connection among strength and tradition, rulers and group, from the 9th to 20th centuries.

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Madrasa) and Sufi centers for devotion and learning (khawaniq, sing. khanqah, or rubut, sing. ribat), were founded. 1 This chapter, in seeking to evaluate the significance of religious leadership and associations in the public sphere, addresses several questions: to what extent did the religious leadership and the groupings that grew up around it enjoy autonomy vis-à-vis the central authorities, that is, develop and restructure according to their own dynamics, independent of the official sphere?

In more concrete terms, al-Ma'mun’s remark refers to a protracted campaign on the part of the self-styled Sunnis, who accused their intellectual and ideological rivals of infidelity (kufr). ”27 Here, as before, al-Ma'mun divided the Islamic community into two factions. ” This is a dramatic accusation and a key to understanding the mihna’s background. What did al-Ma'mun have in mind when he used the word “terror”? I believe that when al-Ma'mun accused his opponents of terrorizing his allies, he was referring to the attempts by the muhaddithun to marginalize and discredit the mutakallimun and exclude them from the professional milieu and even from the overall Islamic social fabric.

As qadis they administered religious law; as muftis they expounded this law by issuing fatwas (legal opinions). As pious and RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP AND ASSOCIATIONS 33 charismatic leaders they considered themselves responsible for correct Islamic behavior. As a group they shared an ethic of public service, providing educational, religious, and legal guidance for the Muslim community. 4 Accounts of `ulama' deeply dedicated to public service further convey the impression of a group closely linked to the urban populace and playing a vital role in daily community life.

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The Public Sphere in Muslim Societies by Miriam Hoexter, S. N. Eisenstadt, Nehemia Levtzion

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