There are extra local audio system of Sino-Tibetan languages than of the other language relations on the earth. files of those languages are one of the oldest for any human language, and the volume of lively examine on them, either diachronic and synchronic, has accelerated within the previous few a long time. This quantity contains evaluate articles in addition to descriptions of person languages and reviews at the subgroups during which they take place. as well as a couple of smooth languages, there are descriptions of numerous old languages.
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Additional resources for The Sino-Tibetan Languages (Routledge Language Family Series)
Pulleyblank (1991, 2000) also suggests that Proto-Sino-Tibetan (PST) had a morphological *-n suffix (as well as a *-t suffix), which could explain the correspondences among pairs such as *&ja () ‘speak’ ~ *&jan (ᣄ) ‘say’; ‘word’ (see also Jin 1998a for more examples). Following Graham (1983), Pulleyblank argues that the *-n suffix marks a durative or continuative aspect, and *-t marks a punctual or perfective aspect. Norman (1988: 86) argues that the forms *njan (ྥ) and *w(r)jan (෫ ) are fusions of *nja ( )ڕand *w(r)ja ( Պ ) and an *n- initial pronoun, possibly *njə jʔ (ዿ) or *njak ( ૉ).
Bai: in Wiersma’s (1990) excellent dissertation on Bai, she notes that some scholars argue that Bai is a Tibeto-Burman language with a heavy layer of Chinese loanwords while others argue that it is an Old Chinese dialect that split off from the rest of Chinese some three thousand years ago. It has been difficult for scholars to determine whether the similarities between Chinese and Bai reflect the results of long-term contact or reflect inherited features, because Bai has been under the influence of both Tibeto-Burman languages (for instance, Lisu, Yi, and Naxi) and Chinese.
G. WT gzi-ba, gzid ‘to urinate’; bka ‘word’, ‘speech’, skad ‘speech’ (for other examples and discussion, see Benedict 1972: 98–102; Dai and Xu 1992; Michailovsky 1985; van Driem 1988; Jin 1998a). g. *nji (ሐ) ‘near’, ‘close’ : *njit (ᷡ) ‘intimate’, ‘familiar’; ‘glue’ (from Pulleyblank 1972: 11; this set is cognate with WT nye ‘near’, nyen ‘relative’). g. g. Proto-Tibeto-Burman (PTB) *r-mi ‘person’ : OC *mjin (᳃) ‘the people’. Pulleyblank (1991, 2000) also suggests that Proto-Sino-Tibetan (PST) had a morphological *-n suffix (as well as a *-t suffix), which could explain the correspondences among pairs such as *&ja () ‘speak’ ~ *&jan (ᣄ) ‘say’; ‘word’ (see also Jin 1998a for more examples).
The Sino-Tibetan Languages (Routledge Language Family Series)