By Mark C. Baker
'Agreement' is the grammatical phenomenon during which the shape of 1 merchandise, akin to the noun 'horses', forces a moment merchandise within the sentence, corresponding to the verb 'gallop', to seem in a selected shape, i.e. 'gallop' needs to accept as true with 'horses' in quantity. even if contract phenomena are one of the most established and well-studied features of grammar, there are specific easy questions that experience infrequently been requested, not to mention spoke back. This ebook develops a thought of the contract approaches present in language, and considers why verbs consider topics in individual, adjectives agree in quantity and gender yet now not individual, and nouns don't agree in any respect. Explaining those modifications results in a idea that may be utilized to all components of speech and to all languages.
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Extra resources for The Syntax of Agreement and Concord
C. *Ne sono professori molti. 8 I interpret this as showing that the subject of the nonverbal predication is not inside the AP or NP where it would be lexically governed and thus licensed by the adjective or noun. Rather, it is in the specifier of a nonlexical projection, the PredP, and moving from there incurs a violation (see Baker 2003a:62–9 for a full discussion, couched in more current theoretical terms). There is also indirect evidence of the structural distinction in the simple paradigm in (36) from English.
Mayali allows adjectival roots to be transformed into verbs by a process of zero-derivation, the verbal version having a more temporary, stage-level meaning (see also Heath 1984 on related Nunggubuyu). Another sign that a process of zero-derivation exists in Mayali is the fact that “adjectives” can host noun incorporation (see (32b)), which is otherwise a property of verbs not adjectives in Mayali and other languages (see (42) and Baker 2003a:70–2). Furthermore, “adjectives” – and even nouns referring to life stages, but not others – can bear tense/aspect suffixes that are normally attached to verbs: (33) Ngaye nga-wurdurd-ni galuk ngaban-na-ng.
Heku-na hanu-na (Aikhenvald 2003:73) wood-cl:vertical big-cl:vertical ‘a big tree’ b. tool-cl:curved good-cl:curved ‘a good fishing line’ c. pl ‘a good man’ ‘good men’ The surprise is that when a noun modifies another noun in Tariana, it too seems to have a classifier suffix: 20 (20) Basic agreement and category distinctions a. heku-na [tsuli i-tape]-na (Aikhenvald 2003:85) tree-cl:vertical diarrhea indf-medicine-cl:vertical ‘a tree, (which is) a medicine for diarrhea’ b. like-cl:vertical ‘a tree which has beautiful leaves; a good-leafed tree’ This seems like a counterexample to my otherwise robust generalization.
The Syntax of Agreement and Concord by Mark C. Baker