By Geoffrey Lewis
Incorporating a lot new fabric, this re-creation of the normal paintings provides an authoritative, lucid, and interesting textual content, starting off each shape and development of pre- and post-reform Turkish that could be encountered in print, in addition to colloquial usages.
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Additional resources for Turkish Grammar
OAT. LOe. ABL. -(y)i -(y)li -(n)in -(n)lin -(y)e odette -den/ten -(Y)I -(y)u -(n)m -(n)un -(y)a -da/ta -dan/tan PLURAL ACe. GEN. OAT. LOe. ABL. -Ieri -Ierin -Iere -Ierde -Ierden -Ian -Iarm -lara -Iarda -Iardan 8. Uses of the cases. A case-ending is attached only to the final element in a nominal group; in this respect the Turkish case-endings behave like English prepositions and not like the case-endings of inflected languages such as Latin: 'good citizens', iyi vatanda~lar, boni cives; 'of good citizens', iyi vatanda~lar-m, bon-orum civ-ium.
ACe. el-i anne-si his hand his mother koy-u his village elini annesini koyiinii annesinin koyiiniin GEN. elinin OAT. eline annesine koyiine LOe. elinde annesinde koyiinde ABL. elinden annesinden koyiinden II, 1 7 40 THE NOUN ad-I his name ACe. adml GEN. admm OAT. adma LOe. admda A B L. admdan v kan-sl his wife kansml kansmm kansma ~ocug-u kansmda kansmdan ~ocugunda his child v ~ocugunu ~ocugunun ~ocuguna ~ocugundan The principle of suspended affixation (§ 9 (d» must be borne in mind: tebrik ve te~ekkurlerimi sunanm 'I offer my congratulations and thanks', the -Ier-im-i applying to both nouns.
But padi~ahlarm biri means one out of all the historical individuals who have held the title, 'one of the Sultans'. The rule that inanimate plural subjects take a singular verb-people are, things is-is not as widely observed as it once was. The use of a plural verb with a singular subject, second or third person, is a mark of respect. See further XVI, 1 and 3 (b). Personal names may be used in the plural like our 'the Joneses' to refer to a family; in Turkish the plural may be of a given name as well as of a surname: Mehmetler 'Mehmet and his family'; d.
Turkish Grammar by Geoffrey Lewis