By Ronald Carter

ISBN-10: 0203124650

ISBN-13: 9780203124659

ISBN-10: 0415699339

ISBN-13: 9780415699334

ISBN-10: 0415699347

ISBN-13: 9780415699341

This re-creation builds upon those foundations and develops additional figuring out of a key zone of utilized linguistics, with up-to-date chapters on:
* vocabulary and language teaching
* dictionaries and lexicography
* the literary learn of vocabulary.
It additionally contains new fabric on:
* the connection among vocabulary, grammar and discourse
* the consequences of latest insights into vocabulary for the research of speech and writing.

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G. g. g. g. priceless, stormless, remorseless. The difficulty of attaching precise meanings and the problem of semantic closeness but not semantic identity, is illustrated when opposites (antonyms) are sought. For example, hopeful is not an opposite of hopeless, and opposites for priceless such as worthless may involve the same affix but a completely different root-word. The general point to be made here is that the meanings contained and conferred by morphemes are not as easily specifiable as may at first appear.

Taxi! And it is only by stretching the imagination that the word shoot could be reduced further to, say, Sh. . , where it would, anyway, be dependent on the other word for its sense. By this definition, then, a word has the kind of stability which does not allow of further reduction in form. It is stable and free enough to stand on its own. It cannot be subdivided. We should note here, though, that a number of words do not pass this minimal free form test. Although we can imagine grammar lessons in which words like my or because appeared independently, it is unlikely that such items could occur on their 3 own without being contextually attached to other words.

In fact, the distinction drawn above between lexemes and word-forms enables an important theoretical point to be made concerning grammatical and lexical ‘words’: there is a regular co-occurrence between a grammatical word and its lexeme; but lexical words take on many different forms. For example, different lexical word-forms ‘sing’, ‘sang’, ‘sings’, ‘singing’, ‘sung’, are realized by a single lexeme SING. But a grammatical word will normally have a single word-form realized by a lexeme. Thus, the lexemes BY and OF have ‘by’ and ‘of ’ as their word-forms.

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Vocabulary : applied linguistic perspectives by Ronald Carter

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